Technology That Enables Computers To Communicate With Each Other
The NPL network, a local area network at the National Physical Laboratory used a line speed of 768 kbit/s and later high-speed T1 links (1.544 Mbit/s line rate). In the late 1950s, a network of computers was built for the U.S. military Semi-Automatic Ground Environment radar system using the Bell 101 modem. It was the first commercial modem for computers, released by AT&T Corporation in 1958.
Together with the Internet, computers enable people to communicate and receive a prompt response. World Wide Web browser software, such as Microsoft’s Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera, Apple’s Safari, and Google Chrome, lets users navigate from one web page to another via hyperlinks embedded in the documents. These documents may also contain any combination of computer data, including graphics, sounds, text, video, multimedia and interactive content that runs while the user is interacting with the page. Client-side software can include animations, games, office applications and scientific demonstrations. Through keyword-driven Internet research using search engines like Yahoo! and Google, users worldwide have easy, instant access to a vast and diverse amount of online information. Compared to printed media, books, encyclopedias and traditional libraries, the World Wide Web has enabled the decentralization of information on a large scale.
Collections of personal web pages published by large service providers remain popular, and have become increasingly sophisticated. Whereas operations such as Angelfire and GeoCities have existed since the early days of the Web, newer offerings from, for example, Facebook and Twitter currently have large followings. These operations often brand themselves as social network services rather than simply as web page hosts. The most prominent component of the Internet model is the Internet Protocol , which provides addressing systems for computers on the Internet.
We usually lump these protocols together as TCP/IP, but they are two separate sets of rules. “Sockets” are the software that provide access to TCP/IP on most operating systems. This was the first digital local network in the world to use packet switching and high-speed links. The introduction and rapid growth of e-commerce on the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s made it obvious that some form of authentication and encryption was needed.
Connecting to the Internet at your home also requires either a cable modem or a DSL modem, depending on which ISP you use. ISPs , the companies that provide Internet service and connectivity, also follow these rules. The ISP provides a bridge between your computer and all the other computers in the world on the Internet. The ISP uses the TCP/IP protocols to make computer-to-computer connections possible and transmit data between them.