Besides literally hooking up laptop or computer

Computer Network

Nelson calls it a “hyperlink,” and the computerized text “hypertext.” Along with graphics pioneer Andries van Dam they develop many core computing functions such as word processing, online collaboration, and hypertext links. J.C.R. Licklider’s 1960 book Libraries of the Future outlines a related vision, which adds mild artificial intelligence to the mix. There is far too much data gathered by these packet sniffers for human investigators to manually search through all of it. More recent studies indicate that in 2008, women significantly outnumbered men on most social networking sites, such as Facebook and Myspace, although the ratios varied with age. The Web has also enabled individuals and organizations to publish ideas and information to a potentially large audience online at greatly reduced expense and time delay.

It’s the combination of protocols and infrastructure that tells information exactly where to go. The Weather Company worked to create a peer-to-peer mesh network that allows mobile devices to communicate directly with other mobile devices without requiring WiFi or cellular connectivity. The Mesh Network Alertsproject allows the delivery of life-saving weather information to billions of people, even without an internet connection. Computer networks enable communication for every business, entertainment, and research purpose.

In Ethernet networks, each network interface controller has a unique Media Access Control address—usually stored in the controller’s permanent memory. To avoid address conflicts between network devices, the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers maintains and administers MAC address uniqueness. The three most significant octets are reserved to identify NIC manufacturers. These manufacturers, using only their assigned prefixes, uniquely assign the three least-significant octets of every Ethernet interface they produce. Free-space optical communication uses visible or invisible light for communications.

Processes for authenticating users with user IDs and passwords provide another layer of security. Security includes isolating network data so that proprietary or personal information is harder to access than less critical information. Network threats constantly evolve, which makes network security a never-ending process.

Ever on the alert for a Soviet attack, SAGE operators would describe the experience as endless hours of boredom…broken by seconds of sheer terror. By the early 1960s, intercontinental ballistic missiles will make the bomber threat – and SAGE itself – partly obsolete. Like the Volkswagen Beetle and modern freeway systems, the Telex messaging network comes out of the early period of Germany’s Third Reich.

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